This text summarizes the features, benefits and general parameters of the Petzl front to facilitate the choice of the consumer according to your needs.
With the wide variety of products offered and to evaluate the performance of the different headlights, Petzl has developed a protocol of measurement which is summarized in the following points:
- Tests are conducted in five lights exactly the same, randomly selected from the production line.
- They are tested one at a time with two sets of batteries new and identical to those who avail themselves of series. Distributed without batteries, flashlights are tested with new alkaline batteries.
- To ensure homogeneity of the test, all measurements are carried out at a temperature of 20 ° C.
- Ten measurements are performed for each parameter. The final value is the average of all measurements.
It is the amount of illumination from which already is not satisfactorily according to Foodezine.com. Fundamental aspect to determine the autonomy. Petzl estimated as a minimum level of lighting that may be on a clear full moon night (0.25 lux). *
* The unit of measurement of illuminance or illumination level is understood as lux . Equivalent to a lumen/m2.
Duration during which a lantern provides a greater than or equal to 0.25 illuminance lux, measurement on the axis of the beam and at a distance of two metres. When, at a distance of two meters, illuminance value is less than 0.25 lux is considered that the torch is no longer functional.
Scope of lighting
It is the distance up to which the Lantern provides a higher illuminance of minimum illumination, i.e. 0.25 lux.
Also called luminous power, is the amount of total light that emits a flashlight. This value is expressed in lumens (lm). The measurement is made in laboratory complementarily to the reach of the lighting.
Petzl indicates maximum capacity of illumination on the front panel as the luminous flux in maximum mode, i.e., with fully charged batteries or batteries.
As reference values indicated that:
- A candle provides 10 lumens aprox.
- Domestic lighting between 100-200 lumens.
Petzl fronts have a light output that varies between 50-350 lumens.
Adaptations of the Petzl front lighting
Shape of the light beam
Each beam of light includes a residual part wider than the beam main, increasing visibility.
The light beam can be homogeneous or inhomogeneous. Petzl fronts are always homogeneous.
The shape of the light beam depends on the type of light source and optics. Distinguishing two types of bundles:
The light beam diffuses the light of proximity. It is better adapted to static activities or quiet movement.
It concentrates the light to illuminate more distance. Designed for Agile movements.
To the different needs of application, the Petzl fronts can light with different intensities. Different lighting modes are: maximum, optimum, economic, intermittent and Boost. In this way the user can optimize lighting power and autonomy according to needs of use.
Boost mode increases for 20 seconds the lighting power 50% more than at the maximum level. For its part, the intermittent mode is used in situations of emergency and to be located.
Degree of protection and electromagnetic compatibility
Each front is prepared for different uses and climatic conditions, for this reason each Lantern has a degree of protection (IP XX), as well as an indication on the level of compatibility.
IP XX: Degree of protection where the first digit indicates the level of protection against solid bodies, while the second figure includes protection against liquids.
Petzl fronts are listed as: IPx4, IPx6 and IPx8.
- The two first types, IPx4, IPx6, so-called water resistant, resist the worst weather conditions (high humidity, snow, rain, rapid immersion, etc.). They work though to get water inside, thanks to the contacts of stainless steel and watertight layer of the most delicate parts.
- The IPx8 type, named waterproof, is sealed. It supports dip for more than 30 minutes at a depth of between 1-5 meters.
The following tables explain the nomenclature employed:
Electromagnetic compatibility EMC
It consists of fitness of an electrical device to make it work correctly, regardless of possible electromagnetic interference of the environment, and without causing them himself.
Petzl flashlights meet the requirements of the Directive 89/336/EEC on electromagnetic compatibility: can not generate any interference with other products marked CE.
Characteristics of LED lighting
LEDs have a molded individual capsule, have no filament, have lower power consumption and longer life, and have a great variability of shapes and colors.
Types of LEDs:
- With an integrated lens diameter 5 mm cylindrical Leds . They do not require a wide angle lens to get close lighting and are resistant to shock and vibration.
- Led’s high performance. It requires an additional lens to disperse light, providing in addition physical protection against impacts.
The life of a led is determined when your performance is reduced 50% respect the original. For quality LEDs, this life is about 100,000 hours under normal conditions. When you pass this period signal is very weak. While the average life of a led is approximately 5,000 hours of continuous use.
Lenses and reflectors
Petzl fronts incorporate reflectors (incandescent lamps) or lens (in Leds).
Lenses are a very important element in the lighting. Allows the user to vary the light emitted by the led. Lenses can be fixed or adjustable allowing to vary the light of focus according to the needs of each moment. The lenses are made of glass or plastic and its structure is relatively compact. According to their shape, they can provide a diffuse or concentrated light.
The reflectors surrounding the light bulbs act as mirrors, directing the light in a particular direction. They can be parabolic or planes and both have a reflective inner surface.
Reflectors are used in the front with incandescent lamps. The design of the reflectors aims to increase efficiency in lighting, get a uniform beam and reduce the possible imperfections in the beam due to the form of filament, the quality of the glass or the presence of several lamps. The reflectors are usually built with a protective lens. The Petzl fronts with reflectors can regulate the light beam.
The high-performance LEDs emit light in 180o. Lens causes light beam to focus and Middle East. Petzl lenses are designed optimizing more efficient lighting and getting the maximum uniformity of the light beam.
The front equipped with lenses emit a beam narrow and long distances. To get to a lighting issue more wide and close Petzl has designed a retractable lens wide angle formed by multiple microlenses.
For 5 mm leds, since their support already provides the orientation of the beam in a fixed way, Petzl introduces a termination in silvery tones to improve visibility.
Cells and batteries
All batteries are polarized, with its positive and negative pole. Due to this placement should be correct, but can become unstable and emit gases and corrosive liquids.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries
They can be recharged between 200 and 1500 times. Some models of Petzl fronts incorporate battery charging indicator light, as shown below.
Flashing green: battery loaded successfully.
Flashing orange: less than 30% charge.
Flashing red: less than 10% load.
The process of discharge of the rechargeable batteries depends on the elements used, the conditions of use, the quality of the parts and Assembly. Petzl flashlights can also incorporate an electronic device that regulates the operation of the front. Therefore there are two types of headlamps: regulated and not regulated.
Operation of regulated flashlight
In the unregulated flashlights scope of lighting will decline with the discharge of the battery, i.e. with its use. While regulated lamps in the scope of the focus remains constant over a period of time (this time is which appears to be collected on the performance of the Lantern as autonomy). Past this time the power light decreases to a minimum so that the user can change the batteries.
Operation of non-regulated flashlight
For non-regulated headlights, Petzl based measurements after 30 minutes, 10 hours and 30 hours of continuous use respectively.
On the other hand, Petzl defines as effective signage lighting which is visible at a minimum distance of 100 metres. Autonomy indicated in the headlights corresponds to the time during which the front emit a signal greater than or equal to 0.00001 lighting lux at 100 metres away on the same axis.
Electric current provided by batteries comes from the transformation of chemical energy into electrical energy when the battery is connected to the electrical circuit. The chemical process that takes place in the rechargeable battery is reversible and that they may be charged.
Rechargeable batteries also have polarity so also have a specific placement on the front. They are placed wrong, the batteries could result in an overload. If you put a charged battery and provides a poor beam placement of the battery should be checked immediately.
The most important parameters in the load are the voltage, the current and duration.
The duration of the load depends on the type of battery and the use to which it is subjected. In any case it is recommended to charge the battery in the indicated time and not exceed it, having a maximum capacity. If the battery continued to charge could be overloaded. Also in the charging process, heat is generated and an excess of this can cause premature wear (effect memory, which refers to the rechargeable Ni-CD, and to a lesser extent those of Ni-MH, suffer a premature aging when loading and unloading processes are not complete).
The capacity of a battery is measured in amp hours (Ah). The higher the capacity the greater the duration of light. The capacity depends on the type of battery (alkaline, lithium, etc.), the number of its components, its structure and the temperature. Each manufacturer uses a different measurement system.
These batteries are cheaper and have a lower yield. They are designed for items that require low electrical requirements such as watches, radios, or remote controls, are now disappearing in the market. Petzl discourages its use by the poor performance and possible faults.
They are the most common batteries currently on the market. They are well suited for the majority of electrical products and long periods of time can be stored.
Batteries and lithium batteries
They are elements of lower volume, less weight, better performance at different temperatures and greater capacity (30% more than the alkaline batteries for the same size).
During the use of the lamp stack is downloaded, in different ways depending on the technology and the quality of the materials. In general, alkaline battery voltage constantly decreases during normal use, while the voltage level provided by lithium batteries reduces by stages.
Lithium batteries provide a different performance depending on the type. 1.5V batteries provide constant lighting during most of its lifetime. While 3V batteries have a progressive loss of performance.
Batteries use a lithium-ion or a polymer (Li-po). More expensive and light, these batteries are used in products of high requirements such as laptops or mobile phones. They require an adapter to be loaded and are equipped with a protection circuit electronics that control its voltage during charging, temperature, etc.
Rechargeable lead-acid batteries
They are a model of old and cheap batteries. They are very resistant and can provide a lot of power, but its weight and volume are very high.
These batteries are really composed by nickel-cadmium (NI-CD) or with metal hydride (NI-MH). Currently the more employee is Ni-NH. This type offers a high power density but is discharged faster and tolerate less stages of loading / unloading.
The technology of NI-CD remains popular because it offers a current that is significantly higher than that obtained from Ni-MH, Li-Ion or rechargeable batteries.